Annual Report

of the

Director of the Mint,

For the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30th, 1860.






Philadelphia:
Collins, Printer, 705 Jayne Street.
1860.


Mint of the United States,
Philadelphia, November 5, 1860.

Sir: I have the honor to present the following report of the operations of the Mint of the United States, and its branches, for the year ending June 30, 1860.

The amount of gold and silver received during the year, that is to say, from the 1st of July, 1859, to the 30th of June, 1860, inclusive, was as follows: Gold deposits, $22,673,192.21; silver deposits and purchases, $3,152,437.15; total gold and silver bullion received, $25,825,629.36. The coinage operations during the same period were as follows: Gold coins issued, $16,445,476.00; fine gold bars, $7,001,807.35; silver coins, $2,769,920.00; silver issued in bars, $480,716.26; cent coins, $342,000; total coinage operations, $27,039,919.61; comprised in 43,885,721 pieces of all denominations of coins.

The operations during the year were distributed as follows: At the Mint in Philadelphia, the deposits of gold amounted to $4,266,618.93; the gold coinage, including $170,275.34 of fine bars, was $4,354,576.84; silver bullion received, $756,505.41; silver coins struck, $835,420.00; silver bars made and issued, $21,656.30; cents coined, $342,000. Total deposits of gold and silver, $5,022,524.34; total coinage, $5,553,653.14; comprised in 38,091,348 separate pieces of all denominations of coins.

At the Branch Mint at New Orleans the amount of deposits of gold, was $153,731.71; and of silver, $1,381,113.40. The coinage amounted to $169,000 in gold, and $1,598,422.33 in silver coins, including $25,422.33 in bars. Total deposits of gold and silver, $1,534,845.11; total coinage, $1,767,422.33; comprised in 4,322,550 pieces.

The Branch Mint at San Francisco received during the year gold deposits to the value of $11,319,913.83; and deposits of silver of the value of $480,139.75. The coinage amounted to $11,889,000 in gold, and $572,911.52 in silver, including $211,411.52 in bars. Total deposits at this branch of the Mint of gold and silver, $11,800,053.58; and total coinage, $12,461,911.52; composed of 1,417,475 separate pieces of all denominations of coins.

At the Branch Mint at Dahlonega, the sum of $67,085.21, in gold, was deposited for coinage; the amount of coinage was $69,477.00; comprised in 15,874 pieces.

The deposits and coinage at the Branch Mint at Charlotte were as follows: Gold deposits, $133,491.17; gold coinage, $133,697.50; combined in 30,474 pieces.

The Assay Office at New York received during the year, gold deposits to the amount of $6,731,951.36; and silver bullion to the value of $534,678.59. The same establishment melted and refined, and made into fine bars, gold bullion of the value of $6,831,532.01; and silver bars of the value of $222,226.11. Total deposits of gold and silver, $7,266,629.95; total amount of fine bars of gold and silver made during the year, $7,053,758.12.

The amount of gold, produced from the mines in the United States, deposited during the year was $18,971,041.75, and of silver the sum of $293,797.05. The sources from whence these supplies of the precious metals have been obtained for the last year, as well as for previous years, are stated in the statistical tables attached to this report.

Within the last year some new mines of silver have been brought to our notice, the most important of which are those situated in the Washoe region, in the territory of Utah, about three hundred and thirty miles northeast from San Francisco. At the Branch Mint in that city upwards of $80,000 were received from these mines during the last fiscal year, and they promise a considerable and increasing supply of silver for that institution and the other mints. It has, however, given some trouble when used as an agent, or assistant, for parting silver from native gold, on account of the presence of antimony, a very small portion of which induces brittleness in the gold. A similar annoyance has, we are informed, occurred in the British Mint, in its operations upon Australian gold.

The gold mines in Kansas have produced during the year the sum of $622,000, and there are indications that the supply of gold bullion from thence will hereafter be increased. This enlargement in the production of gold from Kansas is interesting from the fact that the supply from the mines of California to the mints has been, for years past, declining. In 1858, the mints received from California gold deposits to the value of nearly fifty-six millions of dollars; during the last year the amount was somewhat above twenty millions. In the gold producing region of Kansas, namely, at Denver City, a private minting establishment has been set in operation by Messrs. Clark, Gruber & Co., from which pieces of ten aud five dollars are issued. They are of various grades of fineness; our assays show them to be from 815 to 838 thousandths, and the pieces are evidently made direct from native gold with its silver alloy, without any attempt to fix or maintain any exact standard. The weight is greater than in corresponding pieces of the national coinage in order to make up for the deficiency of fineness; the ten dollar pieces vary from 273 to 283½ grains. On the average, and adding the value of the silver alloy, and deducting the mint charges, the pieces are found to be of professed value, or slightly over. The devices on the ten dollar piece are appropriate and distinctive; but on the five dollar piece they are made in close imitation of the legal coin, a reprehensible and illegal practice, countenanced by previous similar emissions in California.

Within the last year fraudulent practices upon our gold coins have greatly increased. The Mint is giving the most earnest attention to devising the best remedies against these practices; and the same subject is undergoing a careful investigation by scientific men not connected with the Mint, under an appropriation made by Congress.

The new cents have heretofore been issued in exchange for the fractions of the Spanish and Mexican dollar, and for the old copper cents. As the Spanish and Mexican pieces were received at their nominal value, large amounts of these coins have been brought to the melting-pot, and thus the community has been relieved from an irregular and depreciated currency. But it has required the issue of a large amount of cents, and induced a temporary redundancy of that coin in some of the Eastern cities. They are gradually, however, being distributed to all parts of our country, including a portion of the Southern States, where the copper cent was scarcely known as a circulating medium. Since the passage of the act of 25th June, 1860, the issues have been limited to exchanges for the copper cents, except the supplying of the government offices with the new issue, and distant parts of the country in limited amounts. In order to accelerate the process of relieving the community from the cumbrous and inconvenient copper cents, the Mint now pays the expenses of transportation on them, and will make returns in the new issues. This arrangement will tend to relieve the country from a burdensome currency, without increasing the amount of circulation of that denomination of coins.

The third section of the act of Congress approved February 21, 1857, makes it “the duty of the Director of the Mint to cause assays to be made from time to time of such foreign coins as may be known to our commerce, to determine their average weight, fineness, and value, and to embrace in his annual report a statement of the results thereof.” In previous reports I have presented the results of the assays which have been made of such foreign gold and silver coins as came within our notice, or could be procured for examination and assay. Since the last annual report several varieties of coins not heretofore noticed have been assayed. The result of these assays, together with those previously made, will be found in the tabular statements of the weight, fineness, and value of foreign gold and silver coins which are attached to this report. Some remarks in reference to the coins not heretofore reported upon may, however, be properly presented.

The coinage of Tunis has recently emerged from barbarism and assumed a civilized aspect. As late as 1839 there were no gold coins issued by that government, and the professedly silver coins were nearly three-fourths copper. The new gold piece of twenty-five piastres, dated A. H. 1276 (corresponding to A.D. 1859) weighs .161 oz. or 77.3 grains, is 900 thousandths fine, and consequently very nearly of the value of three dollars; after deducting mint charges for recoinage, $2.98.5. The silver coin of five piastres, A. H. 1268 (1851), weighs .511 oz. or 245.3 grains, is 898½ thousandths fine (intended for 900), and therefore worth 61.8 cents. These results make the gold piastre twelve cents, and the silver piastre nearly twelve cents and four-tenths of a cent, for exchange calculations.

The eighty-real gold piece of Spain, 1845, not received here until recently, will be found in the tabular statements above referred to. It has been superseded by the new series of Spanish coinage, but it is still current.

The half and quarter of the silver 2000 reis piece of Brazil have not hitherto been assayed at this mint. They prove to be of the same standards as the principal piece, and are proportional in value.

A new silver dollar has been issued in Bolivia, greatly reduced in weight and value as compared with the former issues. A number of the pieces of the date 1859 average .648 oz. or 311 grains; and, being 902 thousandths fine, are worth 78.6 cents. They are closely adjusted to the depreciation of the half dollar which has been issued by that government for a number of years past.

The Envoys from the Empire of Japan, who were accredited to the government of the United States, visited the Mint on the 13th and 14th of June last. In compliance with their wishes and the instructions of the Department, I caused several assays to be made in their presence of the coins of Japan and of our own issues; conforming to their request to have an entire cobang assayed, instead of a small piece, as is our usual method. The annexed tables will show the results of these assays. The valuation there given of the cobang includes the silver contained as alloy. Although the new cobang does not quite come up to $3.60, it was conceded to the Embassy to make that valuation the basis of commercial rates. This makes the itzebu (the unit of Japan) 90 cents, which is a convenient figure and sufficiently exact. In order to present this subject more fully, I have deemed it proper to annex to this report a copy of the certified statement which was furnished to the Envoys of the result of the assays made in their presence; and also a copy of my communication to them, through the Department, under date of the 20th of June last.

Subsequently to these transactions, we obtained, and placed in the cabinet of the Mint, a Japanese oban; it weighs 5.30 oz., is 667 thousandths fine, and of the value of $75.24, including the silver alloy. This piece does not appear to have any definite relation to the cobang or to the itzebu. It is probably used as a commercial bar. If it is to be ranked among the coins, it is certainly the largest one which has come under our notice. It is of an oval shape, the larger diameter being six inches and one-eighth of an inch, the smaller three inches and three-fourths of an inch.

Since the close of the fiscal year there has been a recoinage, by the order of the Department, of a portion of the thick gold dollars which had accumulated in the Treasury of the United States. As there is some misapprehension on this subject in the public mind, a few remarks respecting it may not be inappropriate at this time. The first issues of the gold dollar, the coinage of which was commenced in 1849, were less in diameter than those issued since 1853, the latter being larger than the former to the extent of the one-tenth of an inch. This enlargement of the coin is a decided improvement, especially as it is more conveniently handled. But there is certainly an inconvenience in having two pieces in circulation of the same value but of different sizes and devices. In view of this inconvenience, and of the fact that a large amount of these gold dollars had accumulated at the U.S. Treasury in New York, and could not be used, the Department directed the recoinage referred to. There are yet in circulation upwards of fifteen millions of gold dollars; of which $9,590,000 are of the thick or first issue, and $5,440,000 are of the enlarged diameter.

It is to be regretted that the system of banking adopted in most of the States tends to exclude small gold coins from circulation. It is certainly the true policy of the country to extend the uses of gold, and drive out of existence that which circulates in the place of it. On this subject I beg to renew some suggestions which I presented in the Mint report for the year 1855. “There is one point connected with this subject, and with the general management of the national coinage, which, although left by law to the discretion of the Director of the Mint, in subordination to the Secretary of the Treasury, and cannot be made the subject of particular legislation, yet is of so much importance to the community generally that this occasion seems appropriate to give it a fair and general understanding. The thirtieth section of the general mint law (act of January 18, 1837) provides that ‘in the denominations of coins delivered the Treasurer shall comply with the wishes of the depositor, unless when impracticable or inconvenient to do so; in which case the denomination of coins shall be designated by the Director.’ In view of the fact that depositors are always paid before their bullion is operated upon, out of a stock of coin previously made ready, it is evident that in the preparation of such a supply of coin the Director is to use his discretion in regard to the denomination before conferring with depositors; and they may or may not be exactly suited in the payment. Undoubtedly, in the issue of coins, every proper attention should be given to the probable demand, and especially in the silver coinage, which, it is to be presumed, is wanted for immediate use, and not for storage in vaults. Heretofore the general practice has been to pay depositors in the coin they have desired, and it is not intended by these observations to give notice that this usage will be entirely abandoned. But the chief design of a national mint is to subserve the interests of the people at large preferably to a few large owners of bullion or coin. The interests of the public and of depositors are not always concurrent in the matter under discussion. Depositors of large amounts call for coin in a form which gives the least trouble to count; and banking institutions, in addition to that, may prefer it in a form not likely to be drawn out. Many who present their checks at these institutions would doubtless ask for specie, but are deterred from doing so by the expectation of receiving double eagles instead of half or quarter eagles. In a word, the plain effect of issuing gold coin of a large size is to keep down the circulation of specie and increase the use of paper money. This remark, of course, does not apply to such localities where paper money is prohibited – as, for example, in the State of California – because in such cases the different currencies cannot come in conflict. Before the act of Congress authorizing the issuing of gold in stamped bars, there was, it is true, a necessity for the issue of large coins, as well to meet the demands for shipment to Europe, as, in some measure, to relieve the pressure upon the Mint. There was no kind of propriety in going through the manipulations and bearing the expense of making small gold coins to be directly melted down in foreign mints or refineries. But since the important change in our mint laws, before referred to, a distinction has been made to meet the demands of trade, by which gold intended for exportation is cast into fine bars, whilst that which is needed for home currency is converted into coin. If we look to the example of the wealthiest and most civilized nations of the globe, we shall find that their largest gold coin, to speak in a general way, does not exceed our half eagle in value. Such is the case in Great Britain, France, Russia, the Netherlands, and other countries. There are pieces of ten thalers (about eight dollars of our money) coined in Germany, but apparently for international use. The same may be said of the North and South American doubloon, of which the amount coined is small. It would no longer be an embarrassment to the principal mint, nor to the branches, except perhaps the branch at San Francisco (and to that institution these views are not intended particularly to apply), to coin all the gold that is likely to be offered in pieces of five dollars and less. It is true that nearly as much labor is expended in the manufacture of a gold dollar or a quarter eagle as of an eagle or double eagle, and in thus offering to make the smaller denominations a large increase of work is assumed; but this consideration is met by another – that the division of labor, and the present efficiency of the mint establishments will enable us to meet such increase without additional expenditures. The manufacture of fine bars at the Assay Office in New York, and the coinage of the Branch Mint at San Francisco, have so divided the work upon gold bullion as to remove all apprehension of difficulty or delay. In the coinage of half eagles, particularly, we shall be materially aided by a very remarkable machine lately invented for the final adjustment of the weight of the individual planchets. This instrument was manufactured at Paris, and has been introduced into the mint there, and one of similar powers is also employed in the mint of England. The one imported for the United States Mint is adapted to the half eagle only. It is justly regarded as a triumph of mechanism. It is not by any means assumed that the coinage of the eagle and the double eagle should be discontinued. On the contrary, they will be indispensable at San Francisco; they may, in some emergencies, be required at Philadelphia and at New Orleans; but, as a general rule, adapted to the principal mint and to the branches in the Atlantic States, it is believed that the time has come to return to the smaller denominations of gold coin, issuing almost the whole in pieces not larger than the half eagle; and this upon the ground already adverted to – particularly applicable to a country so greatly favored with the original production of the precious metal – that the people at large are entitled to a greater portion of real, imperishable money, and that a cardinal point at which this reform is to be begun or aided is the place where the gold is put into shape and size for circulation.”

As our larger gold coins are the most exposed to the fraudulent practice of splitting, and inserting other metals – a contrivance which has recently increased in our country – the suggestions herein made acquire additional importance. It may also be found to be useful, as a further means to prevent such nefarious practices, to increase the diameter and reduce the thickness of several of the denominations of our coins, as has been done in that of the gold dollar and three-dollar piece.

The tabular statements attached to this report are as follows: A. The deposits and coinage at the Mint and its Branches, and the Assay Office, during the year ending June 30, 1860. B. Statement of the amount of gold and silver of domestic production deposited at the institutions above named during the same period. C. The coinage operations of all the minting establishments of the United States from their respective organizations to the 30th of June, 1860, numbered from 1 to 7 inclusive. D. The entire deposits of domestic gold at these institutions for the same period, numbered from 1 to 7 inclusive. E. A statement of the production of domestic silver from the 1st of January, 1841, to the close of the last fiscal year. F. The amount of silver of less denomination than one dollar coined since the passage of the act of February 21, 1853, reducing the weight of such coins. G. The amount and denominations of fractions of the Spanish and Mexican dollar deposited at the Mint at Philadelphia for the new cent. H. A statement of the amount of fractions of the Spanish and Mexican dollar purchased for silver coinage since the passage of the act of February 21, 1857, entitled “An act relating to foreign coins, and to the coinage of cents at the Mint of the United States.” I. The amount of cents of former issue deposited at the Mint at Philadelphia for the new cent. J. A statement of the weight, fineness, and value of foreign gold coins. K. A similar statement of the weight, fineness, and value of foreign silver coins.

I have the honor to be, with great respect,

Your faithful servant,

JAMES ROSS SNOWDEN,
Director of the Mint.

Hon. Howell Cobb,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D.C.


A.– Statement of Deposits and Coinage

At the Mint and its Branches, during the year ending June 30, 1860.

DEPOSITS.
Description.
Deposited, (including purchases)               
Mint of U. States, Philadelphia. Branch Mint, New Orleans. Branch Mint, San Francisco. Branch Mint, Dahlonega. Branch Mint, Charlotte. Assay Office, New York. Total.
GOLD.
Foreign Coin. $7,352 50 $24,855 83 $114,405 00 $146,613 33
Bullion. 53,599 31 39,308 96 301,404 00 394,312 27
U. S. Coin, (O.S.) 4,207 50 4,338 00 8,545 50
Bullion. 4,200,859 62 89,566 92 $11,319,913 83 $67,085 21 $134,491 17 6,311,804 36 22,123,721 11







U. S.  Total Gold $4,266,018 93 $153,731 71 $11,319,913 83 $67,085 21 $134,491 17 $6,731,951 36 $22,673,192 21







SILVER.
Deposited (including purchases) $732,897 17 $1,380,412 08 $336,030 86 $409,299 99 $2,858,640 10
U. S. Bullion 23,608 24 701 32 144,108 89 125,378 60 293,797 05







Total Silver $756,505 41 $1,381,113 40 $480,139 75 $534,678 59 $3,152,437 15







Total Gold and Silver $5,022,524 34 $1,534,845 11 $11,800,053 58 $67,085 21 $134,491 17 $7,266,629 95 $25,825,629 36
Less re-deposits at the different institutions:–
Gold (U. S. bullion), $3,152,679 36
Silver, 398,373 30

3,551,052 66

Total Deposits $22,274,576 70

COINAGE.
Denomination. Mint of United States,
Philadelphia.
Branch Mint,
New Orleans.
Branch Mint,
San Francisco.
Branch Mint,
Dahlonega.
Branch Mint,
Charlotte.
Assay Office,
New York.
Total.
Pieces. Value. Pieces. Value. Pieces. Value. P’ces. Value. P’ces. Value. P’ces. Value. Pieces. Value.
GOLD.
Double-Eagles 188,615 $3,772,300 00 4,350 $87,000 00 579,975 $11,599,500 00 772,940 $15,458,800 00
Eagles 16,013 160,130 00 8,200 82,000 00 10,000 100,000 00 34,213 342,130 00
Half-Eagles 19,724 98,620 00 16,700 83,500 00 12,800 $64,000 23,005 $115,025 00 72,229 361,145 00
Three-Dollars 13,402 40,206 00 7,000 21,000 00 20,402 61,206 00
Quarter-Eagles 13,721 34,302 50 28,800 72,000 00 1,602 4,005 7,469 18,672 50 51,592 128,980 00
Dollars 78,743 78,743 00 13,000 13,000 00 1,472 1,472 93,215 93,215 00
Fine Bars 170,275 34 $6,831,532 01 7,001,807 35














Total Gold 330,218 $4,354,576 84 12,550 $169,000 00 655,475 $11,889,000 00 15,874 $69,477 30,474 $133,697 50 $6,831,532 01 1,044,591 $23,447,283 35














SILVER.
Dollars 315,530 $315,530 00 280,000 $280,000 00 5,000 $5,000 00 600,530 $600,530 00
Half-Dollars 349,800 174,900 00 2,212,000 1,106,000 00 693,000 346,500 00 3,254,800 1,627,400 00
Quarter-Dollars 909,800 227,450 00 388,000 97,000 00 24,000 6,000 00 1,321,800 330,450 00
Dimes 576,000 57,600 00 370,000 37,000 00 40,000 4,000 00 986,000 98,600 00
Half-Dimes 870,000 43,500 00 1,060,000 53,000 00 1,930,000 96,500 00
Three-Cent pieces 548,000 16,440 00 548,000 16,440 00
Bars 21,656 30 25,422 33 211,411 52 $222,226 11 480,716 26














Total Silver 3,569,130 $857,076 30 4,310,000 $1,598,422 33 762,000 $572,911 52 $222,226 11 8,641,130 $3,250,636 26














COPPER.
Cents 34,200,000 $342,000 00 34,200,000 $342,000 00














Total Copper 34,200,000 $342,000 00 34,200,000 $342,000 00














RECAPITULATION.
Total Gold 330,218 $4,354,576 84 12,550 $169,000 00 655,475 $11,889,000 00 15,874 $69,477 30,474 $133,697 50 $6,831,532 01 1,044,591 $23,447,283 35
Silver 3,569,130 857,076 30 4,310,000 1,598,422 33 762,000 572,911 52 222,226 11 8,641,130 3,250,636 26
Copper 34,200,000 342,000 00 34,200,000 342,000 00














Total Coinage 38,099,348  $5,553,653 14  4,322,550  $1,767,422 33  1,417,475  $12,461,911 52  15,874  $69,477  30,474  $133,697 50  $7,053,758 12  43,885,721  $27,039,919 61


B.–Statement of the Amount of Gold and Silver of Domestic Production,

Deposited at the Mint of the United States and its Branches, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860.

California, (parted from gold,) 
From whence derived.
Mint U. States, Philadelphia. Branch Mint,
San Francisco.
Branch Mint, New Orleans. Branch Mint, Dahlonega. Branch Mint, Charlotte. Assay Office,
New York.
Total.
GOLD.  New Orleans.   Branch Mint, 
California, $663,389 02 $11,319,913 83 $87,135 00 $1,097 37 $6,023,628 36 $18,095,163 58
Kansas, 346,604 05 1,770 39 24,908 86 248,981 00 622,264 30
Virginia, 17,402 62 4,202 00 21,604 62
Georgia, 7,556 41 35,588 92 19,368 00 62,513 33
North Carolina, 8,450 11 3,485 70 $134,491 17 9,755 00 156,181 98
South Carolina, 2,004 36 2,004 36
Tennessee, 595 88 595 88
Oregon, 2,780 16 2,780 16
Alabama, 661 53 661 53
Utah, 4,680 00 4,680 00
Arizona, 1,190 00 1,190 00
Nebraska, 1,402 01 1,402 01
Total, Gold and Silver,     






Total Gold $1,048,180 26 $11,319,913 83 $89,566 92 $67,085 21 $134,491 17 $6,311,804 36 $18,971,041 75

SILVER.
California (parted from gold) $12,201 66 $63,226 12 $701 32 $62,432 60 $138,561 70
Utah (Washoe) 80,882 77 21,658 00 102,540 77
Lake Superior, 10,206 58 15,674 00 25,880 58
Arizona 13,357 00 13,357 00
North Carolina, 12,257 00 12,257 00
Sonora 1,200 00 1,200 00







Total Silver 23,608 24 144,108 89 701 32 125,378 60 293,797 05







Total Gold and Silver $1,071,788 50  $11,464,022 72 $90,268 24 $67,085 21 $134,491 17  $6,437,182 96  $19,264,838 80


C.–Coinage of the Mint and Branches,

From their organization to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860.

1.–MINT OF THE UNITED STATES AT PHILADELPHIA.

GOLD COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Double Eagles. Eagles. Half Eagles. Three Dollars. Quarter Eagles. Dollars. Fine Bars.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Value.
1793 to 1817 132,592 845,909 22,197
1818 to 1837 3,087,925 879,903
1838 to 1847 1,227,759 3,269,921 345,526
1848 145,484 260,775 8,886
1849 653,618 133,070 23,294 688,567
1850 1,170,261 291,451 64,491 252,923 481,953
1851 2,087,155 176,328 377,505 1,372,748 3,317,671
1852 2,053,026 263,106 573,901 1,159,681 2,045,351
1853 1,261,326 201,253 305,770 1,404,668 4,076,051 $15,835,997 94
1854 757,899 54,250 160,675 138,618 596,258 1,639,445 17,643,270 58
1855 364,666 121,701 117,098 50,555 235,480 758,269 16,298 14
1856 329,878 60,490 197,990 26,010 384,240 1,762,936 80,412 12
1857 98,315 2,916 69,115 7,832 106,722 578,356 36,161 68
1858 468,504 13,690 32,633 13,059 113,097 208,724 21,088 10
1859 98,196 8,600 20,718 11,524 76,562 231,873 49,286 59
1860 188,615 16,013 19,724 13,402 13,721 78,743 170,275 34







Total 8,877,841 3,369,251 9,537,220 261,000 6,995,906 15,867,939 $33,852,790 49

MINT OF THE UNITED STATES, PHILADELPHIA (Continued).

SILVER COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Dollars. Half-Dollars. Quarter-Dollars. Dimes. Half-Dimes. Three-Cents. Bars.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Value.
1793 to 1817 1,439,517 13,104,433 650,280 1,007,151 265,543
1818 to 1837 1,000 74,793,560 5,041,749 11,854,949 14,463,700
1838 to 1847 879,873 20,203,333 4,952,073 11,387,995 11,093,235
1848 15,000 580,000 146,000 451,500 668,000
1849 62,600 1,252,000 340,000 839,000 1,309,000
1850 7,500 227,000 190,800 1,931,500 955,000
1851 1,300 200,750 160,000 1,026,500 781,000 5,447,400
1852 1,100 77,130 177,060 1,535,500 1,000,500 18,663,500
1853 46,110 3,532,708 15,254,220 12,173,010 13,345,020 11,400,000
1854 33,140 2,982,000 12,380,000 4,470,000 5,740,000 671,000
1855 26,000 759,500 2,857,000 2,075,000 1,750,000 139,000
1856 63,500 938,000 7,264,000 5,780,000 4,880,000 1,458,000 $31,028 09
1857 94,000 142,000 2,304,000 4,890,000 3,940,000 1,327 46
1858 4,028,000 10,600,000 690,000 4,000,000 1,266,000 843 37
1859 73,500 2,636,000 4,996,000 1,760,000 2,840,000 1,380,000 9,341 08
1860 315,530 349,800 909,800 576,000 870,000 548,000 21,656 30







Total 3,059,670 125,806,214 68,222,982 62,448,105 67,900,998 40,972,900 $64,196 30

MINT OF THE UNITED STATES, PHILADELPHIA (Continued).

COPPER COINAGE. TOTAL COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Cents. Half Cents. No. of Pieces Coined. Value of Gold. Value of Silver. Value of Copper. Value Coined.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces.
1793 to 1817 29,316,272 5,235,513 52,019,407 $5,610,957 50 $8,268,295 75 $319,340 28 $14,198,593 53
1818 to 1837 46,554,830 2,205,200 158,882,816 17,639,382 50 40,566,897 15 476,574 30 58,682,853 95
1838 to 1847 34,967,663 88,327,378 29,491,010 00 13,913,019 00 349,676 63 43,753,705 63
1848 6,415,799 8,691,444 2,780,930 00 420,050 00 64,157 99 3,265,137 99
1849 4,178,500 39,864 9,519,513 7,948,332 00 922,950 00 41,984 32 8,913,266 32
1850 4,426,844 39,812 10,039,535 27,756,445 50 409,600 00 44,467 50 28,210,513 00
1851 9,889,707 147,672 24,985,736 52,143,446 00 446,797 00 99,635 43 52,689,878 43
1852 5,063,094 32,612,949 51,505,638 50 847,410 00 50,630 94 52,403,679 44
1853 6,641,131 129,694 69,775,537 52,191,618 94 7,852,571 00 67,059 78 60,111,249 72
1854 4,236,156 55,358 33,919,921 37,693,069 58 5,373,270 00 42,638 35 43,108,977 93
1855 1,574,829 56,500 10,885,619 10,610,752 14 1,419,170 00 16,030 79 12,045,952 93
1856 2,690,463 40,430 25,876,288 11,074,388 12 3,245,268 09 27,106 78 14,346,762 99
1857 6,333,456 35,180 18,602,020 3,245,853 68 1,428,327 46 63,510 46 4,737,691 60
1858 23,400,000 44,833,766 10,221,876 60 4,971,823 37 234,000 00 15,427,699 97
1859 30,700,000 44,833,111 2,660,646 59 3,009,241 08 307,000 00 5,976,887 67
1860 34,200,000 38,099,348 4,354,576 84 857,076 30 342,000 00 5,553,653 14







Total 250,588,744 7,985,223 671,904,388 $326,928,924 49 $93,951,766 20 $2,545,813 55 $423,426,501 24

For these years, the “No. of Pieces Coined” appears to include the number of bars produced, but the number of bars is not explicitly stated in this report.

2.–BRANCH MINT, SAN FRANCISCO.

GOLD COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Double Eagles. Eagles. Half Eagles. Three Dollars. Quarter Eagles. Dollars. Unparted Bars. Fine Bars.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Value. Value.
1854 141,468 123,826 268 246 14,632 $5,641,504 05 $5,863 16
1855 859,175 9,000 61,000 6,600 3,270,594 93 88,782 50
1856 1,181,750 73,500 94,100 34,500 71,120 24,600 3,047,001 29 122,136 55
1857 604,500 10,000 47,000 5,000 20,000
1858 885,940 27,800 58,600 9,000 49,200 20,000 816,295 65
1859 689,140 2,000 9,720 8,000 15,000 19,871 68
1860 579,975 10,000 16,700 7,000 28,800 13,000








Total 4,941,948 256,126 287,388 62,100 177,366 87,232 $12,775,395 92 $236,653 89

SILVER COINAGE. TOTAL COINAGE.
   PERIOD.    Dollars. Half Dollars. Quarter. Dolls. Dimes. Bars. Number of Pieces. Gold. Silver. Total.
Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Value. Value. Value. Value.
1854 282,712 $9,731,574 21 $9,731,574 21
1855 121,950 412,400 1,471,272 20,957,677 43 $164,075 00 21,121,752 43
1856 211,000 286,000 $23,609 45 1,977,559 28,315,537 84 200,609 45 28,516,147 29
1857 86,000 28,000 800,500 12,490,000 00 50,000 00 12,540,000 00
1858 218,000 63,000 30,000 19,752 61 1,362,028 19,276,095 65 147,502 61 19,423,598 26
1859 15,000 463,000 172,000 90,000 29,469 87 1,463,893 13,906,271 68 327,969 87 14,234,241 55
1860 5,000 693,000 24,000 40,000 211,411 52 1,417,475 11,889,000 00 572,911 52 12,461,911 52









Total 20,000 1,792,950 985,400 160,000 $284,243 45 8,775,439 $116,566,156 81 $1,463,068 45 $118,029,225 26

For these years, the “Number of Pieces” appears to include the number of bars produced, but the number of bars is not explicitly stated in this report.

3.–BRANCH MINT, NEW ORLEANS.

GOLD COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Double Eagles. Eagles. Half-Eagles. Three Dollars. Quarter Eagles. Dollars.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces.
1838 to 1847 1,026,342 709,925 550,528
1848 35,850
1849 23,900 215,000
1850 141,000 57,500 84,000 14,000
1851 315,000 263,000 41,000 148,000 290,000
1852 190,000 18,000 140,000 140,000
1853 71,000 51,000 290,000
1854 3,250 52,500 46,000 24,000 153,000
1855 8,000 18,000 11,100 55,000
1856 2,250 14,500 10,000 21,100
1857
1858 47,500 21,500 13,000 34,000
1859 24,500 4,000
1860 4,350 8,200






1859 Total 806,850 1,594,292 831,025 24,000 1,130,628 1,004,000

BRANCH MINT, NEW ORLEANS (Continued).

SILVER COINAGE. TOTAL COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Dollars. Half-Dollars. Quarter-Dollars. Dimes. Half-Dimes. Three-Cents. Bars. Number of Pieces. Value of Gold. Value of Silver. Total Value Coined.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Value.
1838 to 1847 59,000 13,509,000 3,273,600 6,473,500 2,789,000 28,390,895 $15,189,365 00 $8,418,700 00 $23,608,065 00
1848 3,180,000 600,000 3,815,850 358,500 00 1,620,000 00 1,978,500 00
1849 2,310,000 300,000 140,000 2,988,900 454,000 00 1,192,000 00 1,646,000 00
1850 40,000 2,456,000 412,000 510,000 690,000 4,404,500 3,619,000 00 1,456,500 00 5,075,500 00
1851 402,000 88,000 400,000 860,000 720,000 3,527,000 9,795,000 00 327,600 00 10,122,600 00
1852 144,000 96,000 430,000 260,000 1,418,000 4,470,000 00 152,000 00 4,622,000 00
1853 1,328,000 1,332,000 1,100,000 2,360,000 6,532,000 2,220,000 00 1,225,000 00 3,445,000 00
1854 5,240,000 1,484,000 1,770,000 1,560,000 10,332,750 1,274,500 00 3,246,000 00 4,520,500 00
1855 3,688,000 176,000 600,000 4,556,100 450,500 00 1,918,000 00 2,368,500 00
1856 2,658,000 968,000 1,180,000 1,100,000 5,953,850 292,750 00 1,744,000 00 2,036,750 00
1857
1858 4,614,000 1,416,000 1,540,000 2,540,000 10,226,000 1,315,000 00 2,942,000 00 4,257,000 00
1859 200,000 4,912,000 544,000 440,000 1,060,000 $334,996 47 7,184,500 530,000 00 3,223,996 47 3,753,996 47
1860 280,000 2,212,000 388,000 370,000 1,060,000 25,422 33 4,322,550 169,000 00 1,598,422 33 1,767,422 33











1860 Total 579,000 46,653,000 10,177,600 14,513,500 15,619,000 720,000 $360,418 80 93,652,895 $40,137,615 00 $29,064,218 80 $69,201,833 80

4.–BRANCH MINT, DAHLONEGA.

GOLD COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Half-Eagles. Three-Dollars. Quarter-Eagles. Dollars. Total Pieces. Total Value.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces.
1838 to 1847 576,553 134,101 710,654 $3,218,017 50
1848 47,465 13,771 61,236 271,752 50
1849 39,036 10,945 21,588 71,569 244,130 50
1850 43,950 12,148 8,382 64,480 258,502 00
1851 62,710 11,264 9,882 83,856 351,592 00
1852 91,452 4,078 6,360 101,890 473,815 00
1853 89,678 3,178 6,583 99,439 462,918 00
1854 56,413 1,120 1,760 2,935 62,228 292,760 00
1855 22,432 1,123 1,811 25,366 116,778 50
1856 19,786 874 1,460 22,120 102,575 00
1857 5,470 1,464 1,896 8,830 32,906 00
1858 19,256 900 1,637 21,793 100,167 00
1859 11,404 642 6,957 19,003 65,582 00
1860 12,800 1,602 1,472 15,874 69,477 00






1860 Total 1,098,405 1,120 197,850 70,963 1,368,338 $6,060,973 00

5.–BRANCH MINT, CHARLOTTE.

GOLD COINAGE.
    PERIOD.     Half-Eagles. Quarter-Eagles. Dollars. Total Pieces. Total Value.
PERIOD. Pieces. Pieces. Pieces.
1838 to 1847 269,424 123,576 393,000 $1,656,060 00
1848 64,472 16,788 81,260 364,330 00
1849 64,823 10,220 11,634 86,677 361,299 00
1850 63,591 9,148 6,966 79,705 347,791 00
1851 49,176 14,923 41,267 105,366 324,454 50
1852 72,574 9,772 9,434 91,780 396,734 00
1853 65,571 11,515 77,086 339,370 00
1854 39,283 7,295 46,578 214,652 50
1855 39,788 3,677 9,803 53,268 217,935 50
1856 28,457 7,913 36,370 162,067 50
1857 13,137 13,280 26,417 78,965 00
1858 31,066 9,056 40,122 177,970 00
1859 39,500 5,235 44,735 202,735 00
1860 23,005 7,469 30,474 133,697 50





1860 Total 863,867 219,837 109,134 1,192,838 $4,978,061 50

6. ASSAY OFFICE, NEW YORK.

    PERIOD.    
PERIOD.
Fine Gold Bars. Value. Silver Bars. Value. Total Pieces. Total Value.
1854 822 $2,888,059 18 822 $2,888,059 18
1855 6,182 20,441,813 63 6,182 20,441,813 63
1856 4,727 19,396,046 89 52 $6,792 63 4,779 19,402,839 52
1857 2,230 9,335,414 00 550 123,317 00 2,780 9,458,731 00
1858 7,052 21,798,691 04 894 171,961 79 7,946 21,970,652 83
1859 3,295 13,044,718 43 1,985 272,424 05 5,280 13,317,142 48
1860 6,831,532 01 222,226 11 7,053,758 12






1859 Total 24,308 $93,736,275 18 3,481 $796,721 58 27,789 $94,532,996 76

7. Summary Exhibit of the Coinage of the Mint to the Close of the Year, Ending June 30, 1860.

MINTS. Commencement of Coinage. Gold Coinage Value. Silver Coinage Value. Copper Coinage Value. Entire Coinage.
Pieces. Value.
Philadelphia 1793 $326,928,924 49 $93,951,766 20 $2,545,813 55 671,904,388 $423,426,504 24
San Francisco 1854 116,566,156 81 1,463,068 45 8,775,439 118,029,225 26
New Orleans 1838 40,137,615 00 29,064,218 80 93,652,895 69,201,833 80
Charlotte 1838 4,978,061 50 1,192,838 4,978,061 50
Dahlonega 1838 6,060,973 00 1,368,338 6,060,973 00
Assay Office, New York 1854 93,736,275 18 796,721 58 27,789 94,532,996 76
Assay Office, New York.   





Total $588,408,005 98 $125,275,775 03 $2,545,813 55 776,921,687 $716,229,594 56


D.—Statement of Gold of Domestic Production

Deposited at the Mint of the United States and its Branches, to the close of the year ending June 30, 1860.

1. MINT OF THE UNITED STATES, PHILADELPHIA.

      Period.       Virginia. North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. Tennessee. Alabama. New Mexico. California. Oregon. Kansas. Nebraska. Other sources. Total.
1804 to 1827 $110,000 00 $110,000 00
1828 to 1837 $427,000 00 2,519,500 00 $327,500 00 $1,763,900 00 $12,400 00 $13,200 00 5,063,500 00
1838 to 1847 518,294 00 1,303,636 00 152,366 00 566,316 00 16,499 00 $45,493 00 21,037 00 2,623,641 00
1848 57,886 00 109,034 00 19,228 00 3,370 00 3,497 00 3,670 00 $682 00 $44,177 00 241,544 00
1849 129,382 00 102,688 00 4,309 00 10,525 00 2,739 00 2,977 00 32,889 00 5,481,439 00 144 00 5,767,092 00
1850 65,991 00 43,734 00 759 00 5,114 00 307 00 1,178 00 5,392 00 31,667,505 00 326 00 31,790,306 00
1851 69,052 00 49,440 00 12,338 00 2,490 00 126 00 817 00 890 00 46,939,367 00 47,074,520 00
1852 83,626 00 65,248 00 4,505 00 3,420 00 254 00 814 00 49,663,623 00 49,821,490 00
1853 52,200 00 45,690 00 3,522 00 1,912 00 3,632 00 52,732,227 00 $13,535 00 5,213 00 52,857,931 00
1854 23,347 00 9,062 00 1,220 00 7,561 00 245 00 738 00 35,671,185 00 35,713,358 00
1855 28,895 50 22,626 00 1,200 00 1,733 50 310 00 900 00 2,634,297 63 1,535 00 2,691,497 63
1856 21,607 00 12,910 00 5,980 00 4,910 00 2,460 00 1,440,134 58 40,750 00 1,528,751 58
1857 2,505 00 6,805 00 2,565 00 3,542 00 565,566 41 580,983 41
1858 18,377 00 15,175 00 300 00 18,365 00 1,372,506 07 3,600 00 1,428,323 07
1859 15,720 00 9,305 00 4,675 00 20,190 00 240 00 275 00 959,191 79 2,960 00 $145 00 1,012,701 79
1860 17,402 62 8,450 11 7,556 41 595 88 663,389 02 2,780 16 346,604 05 $1,402 01 1,048,180 26
    PERIOD.    












Total $1,531,285 12 $4,433,303 11 $540,467 00 $2,420,904 91 $36,403 88 $54,944 00 $48,672 00 $229,834,608 50 $63,625 16 $346,749 05 $1,402 01 $41,455 00 $239,353,819 74

2.—BRANCH MINT, SAN FRANCISCO.

    Period.     California. Total.
1854 $10,842,281 23 $10,842,281 23
1855 20,860,437 20 20,860,437 20
1856 29,209,218 24 29,209,218 24
1857 12,526,826 93 12,526,826 93
1858 19,104,369 99 19,104,369 99
1859 14,098,564 14 14,098,564 14
1860 11,319,913 83 11,319,913 83


Total $117,961,611 56  $117,961,611 56

3.—BRANCH MINT, NEW ORLEANS.

     Period.      North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. Tennessee. Alabama. California. Kansas. Other sources. Total.
1838 to 1847 $741 00 $14,306 00 $37,364 00 $1,772 00 $61,903 00 $3,613 00 $119,699 00
1848 1,488 00 2,317 00 947 00 6,717 00 $1,124 00 12,593 00
1849 423 00 4,062 00 669,921 00 2,783 00 677,189 00
1850 3,560 00 4,575,576 00 894 00 4,580,030 00
1851 1,040 00 8,769,682 00 8,770,722 00
1852 3,777,784 00 3,777,784 00
1853 2,006,673 00 2,006,673 00
1854 981,511 00 981,511 00
1855 411,517 24 411,517 24
1856 283,344 91 283,344 91
1857 129,328 39 129,328 39
1858 1,560 00 164 12 448,439 84 450,163 96
1859 93,272 41 93,272 41
1860 661 53 87,135 00 $1,770 39 89,566 92









Total $741 00 $16,217 00 $41,241 00 $2,883 12 $77,943 53 $22,235,308 79 $1,770 39 $7,290 00 $22,383,394 83

4.—BRANCH MINT, CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA.

     Period.      North Carolina. South Carolina. California. Total.
1838 to 1847 $1,529,777 00 $143,941 00 $1,673,718 00
1848 359,075 00 11,710 00 370,785 00
1849 378,223 00 12,509 00 390,732 00
1850 307,289 00 13,000 00 320,289 00
1851 275,472 00 25,478 00 $15,111 00 316,061 00
1852 337,604 00 64,934 00 28,362 00 430,900 00
1853 227,847 00 61,845 00 15,465 00 305,157 00
1854 188,277 00 19,001 00 6,328 00 213,606 00
1855 196,894 03 14,277 17 5,817 66 216,988 86
1856 157,355 18 16,237 35 173,592 53
1857 75,376 47 75,376 47
1858 170,560 33 5,507 16 176,067 49
1859 182,489 61 22,762 71 205,252 32
1860 134,491 17 134,491 17




Total $4,520,730 79 $394,965 04 $87,321 01 $5,003,016 84

5.—BRANCH MINT, DAHLONEGA, GEORGIA.

     Period.      North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. Tennessee. Alabama. California. Kansas. Other sources. Total.
1838 to 1847 $64,351 00 $95,427 00 $2,978,353 00 $32,175 00 $47,711 00 $3,218,017 00
1848 5,434 00 8,151 00 251,376 00 2,717 00 4,075 00 271,753 00
1849 4,882 00 7,323 00 225,824 00 2,441 00 3,661 00 244,131 00
1850 4,500 00 5,700 00 204,473 00 1,200 00 1,800 00 $30,025 00 247,698 00
1851 1,971 00 3,236 00 154,723 00 2,251 00 2,105 00 214,072 00 $951 00 379,309 00
1852 443 00 57,543 00 93,122 00 750 00 324,931 00 476,789 00
1853 2,085 00 33,950 00 56,984 00 149 00 359,122 00 452,290 00
1854 5,818 00 15,988 00 47,027 00 223 00 211,169 00 280,225 00
1855 3,145 82 9,113 27 56,686 36 277 92 47,428 70 116,652 07
1856 25,723 75 44,107 99 106 42 31,467 10 101,405 26
1857 8,083 89 25,097 63 6,498 02 39,679 54
1858 32,322 28 57,891 45 107 33 5,293 52 95,614 58
1859 2,656 88 4,610 35 57,023 12 699 19 $82 70 65,072 24
1860 3,485 70 2,004 36 35,588 92 1,097 37 24,908 86 67,085 21









Total $98,772 40 $309,175 90 $4,288,277 47 $42,119 75 $59,629 92 $1,231,802 90 $24,991 56 $951 00 $6,055,720 90

6.—ASSAY OFFICE, NEW YORK.

Period. Virginia. North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. Alabama. California. Kansas. Utah. Arizona. Oregon. Other sources. Total.
1854 $167 00 $3,916 00 $395 00 $1,242 00 $9,221,457 00 $9,227,177 00
1855 2,370 00 3,750 00 7,620 00 13,100 00 $350 00 25,025,896 11 $1,600 00 25,054,686 11
1856 6,928 00 805 07 4,052 29 41,101 28 233 62 16,529,008 90 16,582,129 16
1857 1,531 00 1,689 00 2,663 00 10,451 00 1,545 00 9,899,957 00 9,917,836 00
1858 501 00 7,007 00 6,354 00 12,951 00 2,181 00 19,660,531 46 $5,581 00 27,523 00 19,722,629 46
1859 436 00 20,122 00 700 00 14,756 00 593 00 11,694,872 25 $3,944 00 2,866 00 405 00 11,738,694 25
1860 4,202 00 9,755 00 19,368 00 6,023,628 36 248,981 00 $4,680 00 $1,190 00 6,311,804 36












Total $16,135 00 $47,044 07 $21,784 29 $112,969 28 $4,902 62 $98,055,351 08 $252,925 00 $4,680 00 $1,190 00 $8,447 00 $29,528 00 $98,554,956 34

7.—SUMMARY EXHIBIT OF THE ENTIRE DEPOSITS OF DOMESTIC GOLD AT THE UNITED STATES MINT AND BRANCHES, TO JUNE 30, 1860.

      Mints.       Virginia. North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. Alabama. Tennessee. California.
Philadelphia $1,531,285 12 $4,433,303 11 $540,467 00 $2,420,904 91 $54,944 00 $36,403 88 $229,834,608 50
San Francisco 117,961,611 56
New Orleans 741 00 16,217 00 41,241 00 77,943 53 2,883 12 22,235,308 79
Charlotte 4,520,730 79 394,965 04 87,321 01
Dahlonega 98,772 40 309,175 90 4,288,277 47 59,629 92 42,119 75 1,231,802 90
Assay Office 16,135 00 47,044 07 21,784 29 112,969 28 4,902 62 98,055,351 08







Total $1,547,420 12 $9,100,591 37 $1,282,609 23 $6,863,392 66 $197,420 07 $81,406 75 $469,406,003 84

      Mints.       Kansas. Utah. Arizona. Nebraska. New Mexico. Oregon. Other sources. Total.
Philadelphia $346,749 05 $1,402 01 $48,672 00 $63,625 16 $41,455 00 $239,353,819 74
San Francisco 117,961,611 56
New Orleans 1,770 39 7,290 00 22,383,394 83
Charlotte 5,003,016 84
Dahlonega 24,991 56 951 00 6,055,720 90
Assay Office 252,925 00 $4,680 00 $1,190 00 8,447 00 29,528 00 98,554,956 34








Total $626,436 00 $4,680 70 $1,190 00 $1,402 01 $48,672 00 $72,072 16 $79,224 00 $489,312,520 21


E.—Statement of the amount of Silver of Domestic Production,

Deposited at the Mint of the United States and its Branches, from January, 1841, to June 30, 1860.

        Year.         Parted from California Gold. Utah (Washoe). Arizona. Sonora. North Carolina. Lake Superior. Total.
1841 to 1851 $768,509 00 $768,509 00
1852 404,494 00 404,494 00
1853 417,279 00 417,279 00
1854 328,199 00 328,199 00
1855 333,053 00 333,053 00
1856 321,938 38 321,938 38
1857 127,256 12 127,256 12
1858 300,849 36 $15,623 00 316,472 36
1859 219,647 34 $23,398 00 30,122 13 273,167 47
1860 138,561 70 $102,540 77 $13,357 00 $1,200 00 $12,257 00 25,880 58 293,797 05







Total $3,359,786 90 $102,540 77 $13,357 00 $1,200 00 $35,655 00 $71,625 71 $3,584,165 38


F.—Statement of the amount of Silver coined at the Mint of the United States and the Branch Mints at San Francisco and New Orleans,

Under the Act of February 21, 1853.

    Year.     Mint of the United States at Philadelphia. Branch Mint, San Francisco. Branch Mint, New Orleans. Total.
1853 $7,806,461 00 $1,225,000 00 $9,031,461 00
1854 5,340,130 00 3,246,000 00 8,586,130 00
1855 1,393,170 00 $164,075 00 1,918,000 00 3,475,245 00
1856 3,150,740 00 177,000 00 1,744,000 00 5,071,740 00
1857 1,333,000 00 50,000 00 1,383,000 00
1858 4,970,980 00 127,750 00 2,942,000 00 8,040,730 00
1859 2,926,400 00 283,500 00 2,689,000 00 5,898,900 00
1860 519,890 00 356,500 00 1,293,000 00 2,169,390 00




Total $27,440,771 00 $1,158,825 00 $15,057,000 00 $43,656,596 00


G.
Statement of the amount and denomination of fractions of the Spanish and Mexican Dollar,

Deposited at the Mint of the United States for exchange for the new Cent, to June 30, 1860.

    Year.     Quarters. Eighths. Sixteenths. Value by Tale.
1857 $78,295 $33,148 $16,602 $128,045
1858 68,644 64,472 32,085 165,201
1859 111,589 100,080 41,390 253,059
1860 182,330 51,630 24,105 258,065




Total $440,858 $249,330 $114,182 $804,370


H.
Statement of the amount of fractions of the Spanish and Mexican Dollar,

Purchased at the Mint of the United States, the Branch Mint, New Orleans, and the Assay Office, New York, and paid for in silver coins, to June 30, 1860.

    Year.     Mint of U.S., Philadelphia. Branch Mint, New Orleans. Assay Office, New York. Total.
1857 $174,485 00 $1,360 00 $112,502 00 $288,347 00
1858 326,033 00 17,355 00 147,453 00 490,841 00
1859 165,115 00 19,825 00 110,564 00 295,504 00
1860 58,353 74 9,075 00 62,072 00 129,500 74




Total $723,986 74 $47,615 00 $432,591 00 $1,204,192 74


I.
Statement of Cents of former issue,

Deposited at the Mint of the United States for exchange for Cents of the new issue, to June 30, 1860.

    Year.     Value by tale.
1857 $16,602
1858 31,404
1859 47,235
1860 37,500

Total $132,741


A Statement of Foreign Gold and Silver Coins,

Prepared by the Director of the Mint to accompany his Annual Report, in pursuance of the Act of February 21, 1857.


EXPLANATORY REMARKS.

The first column embraces the names of the countries where the coins are issued. The second contains the names of coins, only the principal denominations being given. The other sizes are proportional, and when this is not the case, the deviation is stated.

The third column expresses the weight of a single piece in fractions of the troy ounce, carried to the thousandth, and in a few cases to the ten-thousandth of an ounce. This method is preferable to expressing the weight in grains for commercial purposes, and corresponds better with the terms of the Mint. It may be readily transferred to weight in grains by the following rule: remove the decimal point; from one half deduct four per cent., and the remainder will be grains.

The fourth column expresses the fineness in thousandths, i.e., the number of parts of pure gold or silver in 1000 parts of the coin.

The fifth and sixth columns of the first table express the valuation of gold. In the fifth is shown the value, as compared with the legal content or amount of fine gold in our coins. In the sixth is shown the value as paid at the Mint, after the uniform deduction of one-half of one per cent. The former is the value for any other purposes than re-coinage, and especially for the purpose of comparison; the latter is the value in exchange for our coins at the Mint.

For the silver there is no fixed legal valuation, the law providing for shifting the price, according to the conditions of demand and supply. The present price of standard silver is 121 cents per ounce, at which rate the values in the fifth column of the second table are calculated.

Gold Coins.

Country. Denomination. Weight. Fineness. Value. Value after deduction.
Central America   Old Doubloon, Bogota   Oz.  Dec.  Thous. D.C.M. D.C.M.
Australia Pound of 1852 0.281 916.5 5.32.0 5.29.3
    “ of 1856 0.256 916.5 4.85.0 4.82.6
Austria Ducat 0.112 986 2.28.0 2.26.9
Souverain 0.363 900 6.77.0 6.73.6
Belgium Twenty-five francs 0.254 899 4.72.0 4.69.7
Bolivia Doubloon 0.867 870 15.58.0 15.50.2
Brazil 20,000 reis 0.575 917.5 10.90.5 10.85.1
Central America Two escudos 0.209 853.5 3.68.0 3.66.2
Chili Old doubloon 0.867 870 15.57.0 15.49.2
Ten pesos 0.492 900 9.15.3 9.10.7
Denmark Ten thaler 0.427 895 7.90.0 7.86.1
Ecuador Four escudos 0.433 844 7.60.0 7.56.2
England Pound, or sovereign, new 0.256.7 916.5 4.86.3 4.83.9
Pound, or sovereign, average 0.256 915.5 4.84.8 4.82.4
France Twenty francs, new 0.207.5 899.5 3.86.0 3.84.1
average 0.207 899 3.84.5 3.82.6
Germany, north Ten thaler 0.427 895 7.90.0 7.86.1
Prussian 0.427 903 8.00.0 7.96.0
south     Ducat 0.112 986 2.28.3 2.27.2
Greece Twenty drachms 0.185 900 3.45.0 3.43.3
Hindostan Mohur 0.374 916 7.08.0 7.04.5
Japan Old cobang 0.362 568 4.44.0 4.41.8
New cobang 0.289 572 3.57.6 3.55.8
Mexico Doubloon, average 0.867.5 866 15.53.4 15.45.6
Naples Six ducati, new 0.245 996 5.04.0 5.01.5
Netherlands Ten guilders 0.215 899 3.99.0 3.97.0
New Granada Old Doubloon, Bogota 0.868 870 15.61.7 15.53.9
Popayan 0.867 858 15.39.0 15.31.3
Ten pesos, new 0.525 891.5 9.67.5 9.62.7
Peru Old doubloon 0.867 868 15.56.0 15.48.2
New, not ascertained .... .... .... ....
Portugal Gold crown 0.308 912 5.81.3 5.78.4
Rome 2½ scudi, new 0.140 900 2.60.0 2.58.7
Russia Five roubles 0.210 916 3.97.6 3.95.7
Sardinia Same as France .... .... .... ....
Spain 100 reals 0.215 869.5 3.87.0 3.85.1
80 reals 0.268 896 4.96.3 4.93.9
Sweden Ducat 0.111 975 2.26.7 2.25.6
Tunis 25 piastres 0.161 900 2.99.5 2.98.0
Turkey 100 piastres 0.231 915 4.37.4 4.35.2
Tuscany Sequin 0.112 999 2.30.0 2.28.9

Silver Coins.

Country. Denomination. Weight. Fineness. Value.
Germany, north and south    Five francs, average   Oz.  Dec.  Thous. D.C.M.
Austria Rix dollar 0.902 833 1.01.3
   “ Scudo of six lire 0.836 902 1.01.5
   “ New Union dollar 0.596 900 72.0
Belgium Five francs 0.803 897 96.8
Bolivia Dollar 0.871 900.5 1.05.4
   “ New dollar 0.648 902 78.6
   “ Half dollar, 1830 0.433 670 38.5
   “ Quarter dollar, 1830 0.216 670 19.2
Brazil 2,000 reis 0.820 918.5 1.01.3
Canada 20 cents 0.150 925 18.6
Central America Dollar 0.866 850 97.3
Chili Old dollar 0.864 908 1.04.7
   “ New dollar 0.801 900.5 97.0
Denmark Two rigsdaler 0.927 877 1.09.4
England Shilling, new 0.182.5 924.5 22.7
   “ Shilling, average 0.178 925 22.2
France Five francs, average 0.800 900 96.8
Germany, north Thaler 0.712 750 71.7
   “ south Gulden or florin 0.340 900 41.2
   “ north and south 2 thaler or 3½ guld 1.192 900 1.44.3
Greece Five drachms 0.719 900 86.9
Hindostan Rupee 0.374 916 46.0
Japan Itzebu 0.279 991 37.0
   “ New itzebu 0.279 890 33.3
Mexico Dollar, average 0.866 901 1.04.9
Naples Scudo 0.884 830 98.8
Netherlands 2½ guilder 0.804 944 1.02.3
Norway Specie-daler 0.927 877 1.09.4
New Granada Dollar of 1857 0.803 896 96.8
Peru Old dollar 0.866 901 1.04.9
   “ Dollar of 1858 0.766 909 93.6
   “ Half dollar, 1835-’38 0.433 650 37.7
Portugal Silver crown 0.950 912 1.16.6
Prussia New Union dollar 0.596 900 72.0
Rome Scudo 0.864 900 1.04.7
Russia Rouble 0.667 875 78.4
Sardinia Five lire 0.800 900 96.8
Spain New pistareen 0.166 899 20.1
Sweden Rix dollar 1.092 750 1.10.1
Switzerland Two Francs 0.323 899 39.0
Tunis Five piastres 0.511 898.5 61.8
Turkey Twenty piastres 0.770 830 86.5
Tuscany Florin 0.220 925 27.4

JAMES ROSS SNOWDEN,
Director of the Mint.

Mint of the United States,
Philadelphia, November 3, 1860.


Certificate

of the

Assays of Gold Coins of Japan and the United States, Made in the Presence of the Japanese Embassy.


Mint of the United States,
Philadelphia, June 14, 1860.

For the satisfaction of their Excellencies of the Japanese Embassy, the undersigned, Director of the Mint of the United States, certifies to the results obtained by assay of gold coins of Japan and the United States; made in their presence, by the proper officers of the Mint.

One cobang weighed 13821/32 grains; and the gold extracted from it weighed 7910/32 grains.

One other cobang weighed 13810/32 grains; and the gold extracted from it weighed 795/32 grains.

One other cobang weighed 1399/32 grains; and the gold extracted from it weighed 7922/32 grains.

So, on the average of these three, the cobang contains 79⅜ grains of gold, which makes the proportion of fineness 572 thousandths. This result agrees so well with our report of assays made in our usual way (by taking only a half gramme, or about 7¾ grains), that we trust it will give additional confidence to the Embassy, in our regular method of assay.

A gold dollar of the United States weighed 2526/32 grains; and the gold extracted from it weighed 237/32 grains; which agrees as nearly as may be to 900 thousandths, our legal standard.

Therefore, for comparison, the cobang contains 79⅜ grains of gold, and the dollar contains 237/32 grains of gold. But it will be more strictly accurate to say that the proportion of gold in a cobang is 572 thousandths, and in the dollar 900 thousandths, and it is necessary to add that the actual weight of the gold dollar is 258/10 grains by law, which is a more exact basis of calculation than the single piece, which weighed 258125/10,000; and was, therefore, a little too heavy.

The silver being extracted, with the necessary allowance for absorption, showed almost 59 grains of silver in each cobang, and the copper was only 12/32; of one grain in each cobang.

To recapitulate, the average composition of the cobang is as follows in grains:—

Gold 79 12/32
Silver 59
Copper 0 12/32

Average weight of the Cobang in grains    138 24/32

All which is respectfully submitted.

JAMES ROSS SNOWDEN,
Director of the Mint of the United States.


Communication

of the

Director of the Mint to Their Excellencies the Ambassadors from the Empire of Japan.


Mint of the United States,
Philadelphia, June 20, 1860.

To Their Excellencies the Ambassadors from the Empire of Japan to the United States of America.

The undersigned, the Director of the Mint of the United States, begs leave to refer your excellencies to the last conference held with the officers of the Mint in regard to the assay and the currency; at which time it was asked, whether it would not be proper that the officers of the Treasury of Japan should rate the new gold itzebu at 90 cents, and the new gold cobang at $3.60, in exchanging for Mexican dollars, or for gold and silver dollars of the United States, because that is an even decimal figure, and the real value is very near thereto; such valuation to be temporary until the Japanese Government shall have instituted certain reforms in its currency and coinage. To which it was replied, and I have now to repeat the same in writing as you requested, that we consider it altogether proper, and a convenient rate for calculation.

The officers of the Mint do not presume to enter upon the subject of the proposed reforms any farther than to make a few suggestions, which, if not acceptable, may simply be laid aside.

It is probable that it would be just as difficult in Japan as in any other country to introduce great and radical changes in the currency, especially in the unit of moneys, with which the people are familiar. Now, it is to be observed, that while the old silver itzebu was rather too high in its real value to be exchanged at the rate of three to the Mexican silver dollar, or United States gold dollar, yet the change introduced lately has brought it down to a very close adjustment to that valuation; and three new silver itzebus exchange very well with either of the dollars above mentioned; not to the very last fraction, but near enough, so that this need not be altered; and thus we have the basis, that three itzebus are equal to one dollar.

The next point is to make the gold itzebu and the gold cobang to correspond to that basis according to the general relation of value between gold and silver, so that the Japanese may understand their real wealth, and no longer be defrauded by the artful exchanges of foreign merchants. And as you have already alloyed the silver itzebu so as to make it near the standard fineness of nine-tenths (according to the rates in the United States, Mexico, and other countries), we suggest that the same standard should be used for the gold. Whether the remaining one-tenth should be silver or copper, or both, is a minor matter with which we shall not concern ourselves. The great point is to get the right quantity of gold. Then the cobang being four itzebus should contain as much gold as 1⅓ of our gold dollars. It should contain 30.96 grains, or 5.2632 condorines of fine gold; and being nine-tenths fine, its actual weight should be 34.4 grains, or 5.848 condorines. This coin would be small, but a little larger than our gold dollar; and you would do well to coin, also, a piece of ten cobangs, which would be equal to 13⅓ dollars. The gold itzebu would be quite too small for a coin, and seems to be of no use, while you have a silver itzebu.

Inasmuch as some confusion might arise from continuing the name cobang for a coin so different in value from that previously known under that name, it would be better, it seems to us, to introduce into the currency a gold dollar to be rated as equal to three silver itzebus. This dollar, if equal to our own, should weigh 25.8 grains, nine-tenths fine, containing, therefore, 23.32 grains of pure gold; or, in your own weight, about 4.39 condorines, nine-tenths fine, equal to 3.95 condorines of pure gold.

This suggestion, we think, should receive your careful consideration, especially as your people are somewhat acquainted with the silver dollar of Mexico, which conforms very nearly to the gold dollar herein recommended. And as the dollar is a coin and money of account, adopted by nearly all the American nations, and is familiar to many others, it possesses advantages which commend it to your consideration.

As to the shape of the coins, it is very obvious that a circular form would greatly facilitate the work at your Mint. A round piece is always right when laid on the die, but a square or oval piece must be carefully adjusted, and this is a loss of time and labor.

I cannot close this communication without expressing the favorable opinion of the officers of the Mint as to the accuracy of your assays. If, as you state, the intention was to make the cobang consist of 573 parts gold, and 427 parts silver, then the fact that it actually contains 572 parts gold, shows a close approximation, and it also shows that your assayers understand their business. At this day the coins of France are one-thousandth less than they are intended to be; and all the doubloons of North and South America are 5 to 10 thousandths, and even more, below their professed fineness. In these remarks we refer strictly to the new cobangs, because those which were coined a few years ago did not show the same accuracy. Your new silver coin should be about one per cent. finer than it is, according to the single piece we assayed; but the assay of silver, if it is done by the furnace, can never be so exact as the gold. We, therefore, recommend the “humid assay” for silver.

It may be useful for your Mint officers to have a small piece of absolutely fine gold to compare with their own, and I therefore beg you to accept what is inclosed for that purpose.

I have the honor to be, With great respect, Your obedient servant,

JAMES ROSS SNOWDEN,
Director of the Mint.


Index

Assay Office, New York, operations during fiscal year 1859-60
Assay of foreign coins
Assay of Japanese and United States coins, certificate of
Assays of Japanese and United States coins
Bolivia, new silver dollar of
Coinage, operations of Mint and Branches for 1859-60
Coinage, tabular statement of, for 1859-60
Coinage, at Mint of the United States, Philadelphia, 1859-60
Coinage, at Branch Mint, New Orleans, 1859-60
Coinage, at Branch Mint, San Francisco, 1859-60
Coinage, at Branch Mint, Dahlonega, 1859-60
Coinage, at Branch Mint, Charlotte, 1859-60
Coinage, at the Mint and Branches, to June 30, 1860, tabular statement of
Coinage, of small denominations of gold coin recommended
Coinage, in Japan, changes of, suggested to Japanese Ambassadors
Coins, foreign, tabular statements of weight, fineness, and value of
Coins, of Japan, assay of, at the Mint
Cents coined during 1859-60
Cents (O. S.) received to June 30, 1860, in exchange for new cents
Cobang of Japan
Deposits, gold received at the Mint at Philadelphia during 1859-60
Deposits, silver received at the Mint at Philadelphia during 1859-60
Deposits, gold received at the Branch Mint, New Orleans, during 1859-60
Deposits, silver received at the Branch Mint, San Francisco, during 1859-60
Deposits, gold received at the Branch Mint, Dahloncga, during 1859-60
Deposits, gold received at the Branch Mint, Charlotte, during 1859-60
Deposits, gold received at the Assay Office, N. Y., during 1859-60
Deposits, silver received at the Assay Office, N. Y., during 1859-60
Deposits, gold, of domestic production, 1859-60
Deposits, silver, of domestic production, 1859-60
Deposits, gold, of domestic production, to June 80, 1860
Deposits, silver, of domestic production, to June 30, 1860
Envoys from Japan, visit of, to the Mint
Exchange of new cents for fractions of Spanish and Mexican dollar discontinued
Exchange of new cents limited to old copper cents of the United States
Fraudulent practices upon our gold coin
Fraudulent practices upon our gold coin, remedies against
Foreign coins, tabular statements of value
Gold of domestic production, amount received 1859-60
Gold of domestic production, total amount received to June 30, 1860
Gold received from Kansas mines
Gold pieces issued by private minting establishment at Denver City
Gold coins, fraudulent practices upon
Gold coins of the smaller denominations, increased coinage of, recommended
Gold dollars, recoinage of thick pieces, reasons for
Gold coins of Japan
Gold coins, foreign, statement of value
Itzebu, gold, weight, fineness, and value of
Itzebu, silver, weight, fineness, and value of
Kansas, gold from mines of
Oban, gold, weight, fineness, and value of
Washoe region, silver received from

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Scanned Original. A value highligted in green means the shown value has been “corrected” from the value in the original.