|Volume 65 No. 6||June 2019|
Only two months until ANA will be in Rosemont! If you will enter a Collector Exhibit, the application must be received at ANA by June 15. It appears our Saturday meeting during the ANA convention will be moved to start at noon, so that we do not conflict with the new time for the Exhibitor Award Ceremony.
Paul Hybert, editor
The 1204th meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was called to order by President Rich Lipman at 6:45 PM, Wednesday, May 8, 2019 at the Chicago Bar Association Building, 321 S. Plymouth Court, Downtown Chicago with 25 members and 1 guest: Jim Ray.
The Minutes of both April meetings were approved as published in the Chatter. Steve Zitowsky delivered the Treasurer’s Report showing April revenue of $6,252.00 and expenses of $14,114.47. A motion was passed approving the report.
Following a second reading of the membership applications, a motion was made and passed accepting Douglas Baldwin, Meredith Dunham, Constantin Marinescu, and Col. Steven Ellsworth into the club. The application of Jim Ray received first reading.
First V.P. Lyle Daly announced the featured speaker, Robert Feiler, who spoke on “Changed Coins and Numismatic Oddities.” Following a question and answer period, Lyle presented him with an ANA Educational Certificate and an engraved Club medal suspended on a neck ribbon.
Second Vice President John Riley introduced the exhibitors for the evening.
The meeting was adjourned at 9:05 PM until the next meeting on June 12, 2019.
Carl F. Wolf, Secretary
presented by Shanna Schmidt,
to our April 2716, 2019 meeting.
There are plenty of representations of the female gender on ancient coins, but either they are a goddess that is embodied in a female or simply through some association with the Emperor. Finding real examples of actual women on coins, with their own personal stories, can be rather difficult. As I went through preparing for this presentation, I was struck by the difficulty in finding real information on any women. Unfortunately it is just a symptom of the time period. There was no “me-too” movement to generate more interest in women who helped to move history. That doesn’t mean they didn’t exist, but we just have to look closer at those that we do know of.
Queen Dido of Carthage is an interesting example of female representation on early Greek coinage. No one really knows if Dido was an actual person, or just a myth created over time. Perhaps she was a combination of a woman and the mythical spirit that she came to represent. Evidence of Dido’s existence is only through lost writings which were done some 400 years after her death (Timaeus of Sicily in c. 356-260 BC). Later writings by Justin in 3rd century AD tells of a King of Tyre who made Dido and her brother Pygmalion joint heirs. On the King’s death the people made Pygmalion ruler and Dido married her uncle Acerbas. Acerbas was secretly wealthy and when Pygmalion found this out he had Acerbas murdered.
Dido escaped and made her way to northern Africa where she founded Carthage. A Berber king, Larbas, gave Dido a small portion of land on a hill that she outlined with thin oxhide strips. Eventually Larbas wanted to marry Dido and the Carthaginians tricked her into marrying him. Dido sacrificed herself on a funeral pyre in a final act of love for her husband.
Another woman featured on early Greek coinage was the poet Sappho from about the 7th century BC. From a wealthy family in Lesbos, she was known for her lyric poetry, poetry to be sung with a lyre. Most of her poetry has been lost, but some fragmentary poems still remain. Sappho is considered one of the finest poets ever. The coinage with her supposed portrait is from Lesbos many centuries after her death.
Coinage was not used in Pharaonic Egypt, being introduced in the Greco-Ptolemaic period during which important women appeared on coins. The goddess Isis was first mentioned in the First Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BCE). She helped to resurrect her husband/brother Osiris and gave birth to their son Horus. (Marriage between siblings was often and occurred after the accession of the king.) She was considered the divine mother of the Pharaoh who was likened to Horus. Osiris and Isis were very popular in the first century BC, and Isis absorbed many traits from other goddesses. Worship of Isis declined with the rise of Christianity, but it is suggested that elements in Christianity, such as veneration of Mary, were adopted from the worship of Isis.
Among the earliest women of Ptolemaic Egypt tied to coins were Eurydice and Berenice I (c. 340 to 279-268 BC). Berenice was Eurydice’s first cousin and came to court as a lady in waiting. Eurydice, the first wife of Ptolemy I, was the daughter of Antipater, who was regent for all of Alexander’s kingdom after the Partition of Triparadisus in 321 BC, by which Alexander’s the generals partitioned Alexander’s empire among themselves; general Ptolemy obtained Egypt. Eurydice had 5 children but eventually Ptolemy I, who had several concubines, preferred Berenice I and chose her as his main wife. Ptolemy II was the result of their union. [Shanna showed us a gold octadrachm with Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II on the obverse, and Ptolemy I and Berenice I on the reverse.]
Arsinoe I (305-248 BC) was the daughter of Lysimachus, King of Thrace, and first wife of Ptolemy II; she was also the granddaughter of Antipater. The marriage to Ptolemy II was to create an alliance between Thrace and Egypt against Seleucus I of Syria. Arsinoe II (316 to c. 270-260 BC), sister of Ptolemy II, had been married to Lysimachus but returned to Egypt and accused Arsinoe I of wrongdoing; the result was Arsinoe II married her brother, adopted Arsinoe I’s children, banished Arsinoe I to Coptos, and because queen. Arsinoe I is not represented on coinage.
Here is the backstory, showing complicated family ties and thinking. Arsinoe II was the daughter of Ptolemy I and his second wife, Berenice I. When she was 15 she was married to Lysimachus of Thrace (who was 60 years old already) in order to forge good relations between Egypt and Thrace. She had three children with Lysimachus and in order to position her children for the throne, she had her husband’s son Agathokles poisoned. After Lysimachus died, she married Ptolemy Keraunos, her half brother (the son of Ptolemy I and his first wife, Eurydice). She married him for political reasons as both were vying for power in Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Lysimachus. Once Ptolemy Keraunos gained too much power, she attempted to have him assassinated. This ploy resulted in the deaths of two of her children. She then escaped to the Samothrace Temple which she had helped to erect, and finally to her brother Ptolemy II of Egypt — eventually becoming her brother’s wife. Her role as queen was unprecedented. She was active with her brother in power and shared his titles.
Queen Berenice II (c. 273-221 BC) also led a complicated life. She was the daughter of Magas of Cyrene and Queen Apama II, and a granddaughter of Berenice I. She was betrothed to Ptolemy III, her cousin, in a political marriage that would reunite Cyrene with Egypt But after Magas died, Apama II invited her uncle, Demetrius of Macedon, to Cyrene to marry her daughter and thwart the plan to reunify the two kingdoms. Demetrius became more enamored with Apama II, and was killed (in the bed of Apama II) by the jealous Berenice II, who married her cousin, Ptolemy III, and became queen of Egypt. Coins of Berenice show a full, fleshy face, large eyes, and simple coiffure. They are not idealized and do show signs of middle age (like sagging flesh under the chin) to indicate that her power and influence increased with age; ample proportions indicate material prosperity. A cornucopia alludes to the queen’s role as preserver of fertility and incarnation of the goddess of good fortune, Tyche.
Continuing this line was Arsinoe III (died 204 BC), the daughter of Ptolemy III and Berenice II. She was the first of the Ptolemies to bear a child from her brother (Ptolemy IV). She accompanied her brother/husband in battle in 217 BC when he fought against Antiochus the Great, rallying the troops at a low point in the battle. After her husband died, in 204 BC, she was murdered by his top advisors for fear that she would take leadership.
The last of the Ptolemies was Cleopatra VII (69-30 BC), who likely is one of the most remembered women in the history of the world. She was married to two of her brothers, but she bore them no children; she had one child with Julius Caesar and three children with Mark Antony. Cleopatra’s father left her with much debt to the Romans. She is often portrayed as a woman who was power hungry, although she acted in a manner no different than her male counterparts. She was a powerful woman with many accomplishments. We saw a nice silver coin of Cleopatra and Antony, but most coins of Cleopatra are of bronze and are rough looking now.
The coins of the Roman Republic (c. 753-202 BC) showed many goddesses, but not many real women. Romulus and Remus, the traditional founders of Rome, were sons of an Alban princess and the god Mars; they found a new community on the Palatine hill by the Tiber crossing. To increase the number of men, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives from nearby communities. To balance the population, Roman legend says that the Romans seized thirty daughters of their virtuous neighbors, the Sabines. Two women being carried by two men are shown on a silver Republican coin of the moneyer L. Titurius Sabinus (c. 89-88 BC).
During the Roman Republic, emphasis was placed on the needs of Rome versus the individual. There also was a distrust of Etruscan and Greek luxury, including art. Legend tells that while Rome was besieged by the Sabine king Titus Tatius, the Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel approached the Sabine camp and offered them entry to the city in exchange for “what they bore on their left arms.” Greedy for gold, she had meant their bracelets, but instead the Sabines threw their shields – carried on the left arm – upon her, crushing her to death. Her body was then hurled from a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The legend was depicted in 89 BC by Sabinus following the Civil Wars, as well as on a silver denarius of the Emperor Augustus in about 20 BC. Tarpeia became a symbol of betrayal and greed in Rome. The cliff from which she was thrown was named the Tarpeian Rock, and would became the place of execution for Rome’s most notorious traitors.
Rights of women were not as flexible in the Roman Republic as they were in Ptolemaic Egypt. Women were considered an extension of their husbands. They suffered at their husband’s expense or if they fell out his favor. Their virginity was of the utmost importance, as evidenced by a Republican coin of L. Roscius Fabatus showing a girl making a cult offering to a serpent. Propertius, in the late first century BCE, wrote that if the serpent refused the food it meant that the girl was not a virgin.
In Roman Britain, some Celts were allied with Rome. King Prasutagus of the Iceni tribe ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, and the kingdom was annexed and his property taken. According to Tacitus, his wife Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped. In response, Queen Boudica led an uprising against the occupying Roman forces in AD 60 or 61. She died shortly after its failure and was said to have poisoned herself. Boudica issued coins, but no Celtic coins show her.
From the later years of the Roman Republic into the early years of Imperial Rome, real women appeared on Roman Provincial coins. Fulvia was very influential in the Republic, eventually taking Mark Antony as her third husband. (Her daughter Claudia, from her first marriage, would become the wife of Octavian.) She was heavily involved in the politics of Rome and even oversaw the land while Antony and Octavian were off fighting Brutus. Fulvia was a woman of means and apparently married Antony when she was well older than him; she always showed allegiance to Antony. She died in 40 BC, shortly after angering Antony with her involvement in a skirmish between Octavian and Antony’s brother. Coins show her in the guise of Victory, and were struck in her name.
Octavia (69 BC - 11 AD) was the older sister of Octavian, the future Augustus, and became the next wife of Mark Antony. One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. Despite Antony divorcing her and having children with Cleopatra VII, she continued to act respectfully, even caring for all the children from his previous marriages after his suicide.
The eventual peace brought about by emperor Augustus was also a time of moral revival. For the emperor to appear as a guarantor of peace, he offers his family as an assurance that the civil war can be forgotten and that succession by inheritance can prevent it from happening again. Livia Drusilla (58 BC - 29 AD), known as Livia Augusta after her adoption into the Julian family in 14 AD, was the wife of Augustus. An Imperial cult in the eastern provinces resulted in coins showing her as the goddess Demeter. Julia, Augustus’ daughter, appears as Diana on provincial coins of Augustus.
[Numerous examples of real women on Roman Imperial coins followed, with a brief comment about each. All have ties to an emperor.]
Agrippina the Elder (14 BC - 33 AD) was the daughter of general Agrippa and Julia, Augustus’ daughter. She was the mother of Caligula, and had five other children. A coin shows Caligula on one side and his three sisters are shown and named on the other side: Agrippina (the Younger), (Julia) Drusilla, and Julia (Livilla). He was particularly fond of Julia Drusilla. Women in Imperial Rome Caligula, killed after four years of rule, was followed as emperor by his uncle Claudius.
Messalina (c. 17-48 AD), the third wife of Claudius, had a reputation for promiscuity and was executed by Claudius for conspiring to murder him. The writings by Tacitus, written 70 years after her death, were influenced by the writings of Agrippina the Younger who wanted to displace Messalina’s children from the line of succession. Agrippina the Younger (died 59 AD), a sister of Caligula, was the mother of Nero and later became the wife of Claudius — and is presumed to have poisoned her husband. A coin of Agrippina the Younger shows elephants pulling a wheeled vehicle with seated figures.
Poppaea Sabina (30-65 AD), was married twice before her marriage to Nero. She bore Nero a daughter during their 7 year marriage but, while pregnant with her second child, it is suggested Nero kicked her in the stomach, killing her and their unborn child. This could easily be a tale by ancient writers, or it is also possible that Poppaea died from a stillborn child or miscarriage.
Domitilla (45-66 AD) was a daughter of Vespasian and sister of Domitian and Titus. She died prior to Vespasian’s reign, and was deified during the reign of her brother Domitian. Domitia Longina (c. AD 53-55 to c. AD 126-130) was the wife of Domitian. Domitia was exiled in 83 AD briefly for some uncertain reason (possibly due to the death of their son) but returned to Rome in 84 AD and continued to live in harmony with Domitian until his assassination in 96 AD.
Plotina (died 121/2 AD), the wife of Trajan, appears alone on one side of a coin with the goddess Vesta on the reverse. It took 14 years before she was pictured on a coin. She heavily influenced Trajan to adopt Hadrian as his son and future emperor. She is often viewed as having provided Romans with fairer taxation, improved education, assisted the poor, and created tolerance in Roman society.
Ulpia Marciana (48-112 AD) was a beloved older sister of Trajan who lived with Trajan and Plotina after the death of her husband. She traveled extensively with Trajan and his wife, and Was the first sibling to be made Augusta. Salonina Matidia (68-119 AD) was a niece of Trajan, whose daughter, Vibia Sabina, eventually became the wife of Hadrian.
Faustina I (100-140 AD) was the wife of Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius was her nephew and eventually became her adopted son. Although she died early in Pius’ rule, she was a symbolic part of his reign. In life, Faustina was well respected by the people and her personal style was mirrored by many women in her day. Pius was devastated at her death and deified her. Faustina II, the daughter of Faustina I and Antoninus Pius, became the wife of Marcus Aurelius and mother of his many children. Likely political gossip used to damage the reputation of the emperor had her taken with a gladiator who was said that he fathered Commodus, the future emperor. Other than that, there was not much drama surrounding these two who were definitely two of the good ones.
Julia Domna (160-217 AD) was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother to Caracalla and Geta. Born in Emessa of Syrian background, she had a good marriage to Severus, accompanying him on military campaigns and was well-liked by the military. She exceeded all her predecessors in terms of titles and honors, but could not get her two sons to like each other.
Ulpia Severina (c. 275 reign) was the wife of Aurelian and said to be descended from Trajan. This could all be untrue and only a political move to align Aurelian with the father of Severina and the Trajan lineage (one of the “good emperors”). Ulpia Severina is likely the only woman ever to rule the Roman Empire independently, during a 6 month period before Tacitus became emperor. Nothing is written about this in the ancient sources — it is all based on the coins and inscriptions of an increased coinage just prior to Tacitus.
Helena (248-328 AD) was the mother of Constantine the Great, a follower of the Christian faith, and reputed discoverer of the crucifixion cross used for Jesus Christ. She brought Christianity to Rome, built many temples, and convinced her son, Constantine I, to accept Christianity as the main religion; he then rolled it out to the heart of Western civilization. She is considered a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.
A lesser known figure is Cornelia Supera (died after 253 AD) of whom nothing is known except for her coins which bring strong prices in auction. Sulpicia Dryantilla (died 260 AD) was the wife of Regalianus, the usurper of Gallienus. Regalianus gave her the title of Augusta to legitimize himself as emperor; Dryantilla likely was killed when her husband met his fate.
Septimia Zenobia (240-274 AD) was the widow of the King of Palmyra, which is part of modern Syria. This was the Eastern edge of the Roman empire, scene of conflict with the Persian and Sassanian Empires. While regent to her son Vaballathus, she seceded from the Roman Empire and established herself as Augusta. She fought and defeated Roman forces, establishing her credentials as a worthy opponent. Her coins are only from Provinces, not from Rome. Defeated within a year, Aurelian tried to masculinize her in order to gain acceptance from other Romans who saw it as “non virile munus” (an unmanly deed). Most ancient histories have her her last years living in exile near Rome. Women as rulers were seen as a measure of a culture’s decline. However, she was considered to be a just and good ruler by her people, and is used as a patriotic symbol in Syria.
In the Eastern Roman Empire, what we now call the Byzantine Empire, the women appeared to be intelligent but were portrayed as evil (but the men were evil, too). Irene (752-803 AD), a member of the noble Greek Sarantapechos family, was Empress consort to Leo IV from 775 to 780 AD, and then served as regent to her son Constantine from 780-790 AD before gouging out his eyes in 797 AD and killing him, making herself the sole ruler from 797 to 802 AD. Pope Leo III disapproved of a woman leading the Roman Empire, and thus conferred on Charlemagne the honor of Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
More empresses were to appear on coins of the Eastern Roman Empire, usually as regent for a son. History records a range of outcomes, including: turning power over to the son, keeping the power, death, or banishment to a convent.
|CSNS Convention||Chicago Coin Company|
|PCDA Convention||Harlan J. Berk, Ltd.|
Items shown at our April 10, 2019 meeting,
reported by John Riley.
Reminder: You can email to John a description of what you will show at a meeting, to give him a start on this write-up. Send it to email@example.com.
May 1, 2019
The seventh meeting of the 100th Planning Committee was called to order at 6:11 PM by Chairperson Mark Wieclaw with 11 members in attendance.
First item on the list for discussion was the lead trial strikes of the banquet medal. The medal features a stylized version of the Amazonian pattern coinage of the 1870s. The actual banquet medal will be struck in copper with a blue highlight on the reverse.
Scott McGowan will work on the multi-fold write-up for the larger official oval shaped Anniversary medal. Weight, size, cost, and mintage will be included in the insert when finalized.
Seven of the eight invited guests for the August 13th banquet have accepted the invitation. At this time 115 members and guests are paid.
There was discussion about necessary items for the banquet. These include a photographer, table center pieces, a photo backdrop, name tags, and a large poster size board with all levels of patronage listed. An Anniversary cake was discussed, but with two desserts already on the menu, it was decided not to pursue one.
The budget was discussed. So far over $7,750 in sponsorship money have come in. Discussed advertising the event in either the ANA’s Show Guide or the monthly Numismatist. No decision was reached.
Melissa and Bill reported that the Banquet booklet is 80% complete, waiting on information about the two medals. The Goodie bags have been received and will require assistance in filling them with the limited edition Red Book, banquet medal, encapsulated 1919 five cent piece, an elongated 1919 Lincoln cent, possibly a local chocolate, etc.
Scott has offered to send out Press releases and is looking into having an official proclamation from the Mayor and Governor for the milestone.
Three volunteers are needed to put together a non-competitive exhibit of the Club’s various medals issued throughout the past one hundred years. The exhibit would be placed at the ANA convention.
Meeting adjourned at 7:27 PM. Next meeting will be Tuesday, June 11, 2019 at Home Run Inn on Archer Avenue.
Richard Hamilton, Acting Secretary
May 15, 2019
The Chicago Coin Club Board met May 15, 2019 at Connie’s Pizza, 2373 S. Archer Ave., Chicago. President Rich Lipman called the meeting to order at 6:15 PM with the following members present: Deven Kane, Bill Burd, Paul Hybert, Mark Wieclaw, Steve Zitowsky, Melissa Gumm, Elliott Krieter, Carl Wolf, Jeff Rosinia, John Riley, Dale Lukanich, and Lyle Daly.
The meeting was adjourned at 7:33 PM with the next meeting scheduled to be held at 6 PM, Wednesday, August 21, 2019, Connie’s Pizza, 2373 S. Archer Ave.
Carl F. Wolf, Secretary
May 21, 2019
The seventh meeting of the 2019 ANA Convention Committee met May 21, 2019 in the offices of Harlan J. Berk, Ltd., 77 W. Washington, 13th Floor, Downtown Chicago. Chairman Rich Lipman called the meeting to order at 6:00 PM with Mark Wieclaw, Melissa Gumm, Dale Carlson, Harlan Berk, John Kent, Scott McGowan, Lyle Daly, Deven Kane, Steve Zitowsky, and Carl Wolf in attendance.
The committee gave a warm round of applause and thanks to Harlan Berk for providing the meeting space, dinner, and parking.
Volunteer Report by Carl Wolf:
Money Talks Committee Report by Mark Wieclaw:
Page Committee Report by John Kent and Dale Carlson:
Exhibit Committee Report by Lyle Daly and Deven Kane:
Youth Committee Report by Scott McGowan:
Report on the Club’s 100th Anniversary Celebration at the ANA Convention by Mark Wieclaw:
General Discussion by Rich Lipman:
Treasurer Report by Steve Zitowsky:
The meeting was adjourned at 7:10 PM.
Carl Wolf, Secretary
Chicago Coin Club
|Date:||June 12, 2019|
At the Chicago Bar Association, 321 S. Plymouth Court, 3rd floor meeting room. Please remember the security measures at our meeting building: everyone must be prepared to show their photo-ID and register at the guard’s desk.
|Featured Program:||Dale Carlson
— Flying Eagle and Indian Head Cents — The Journey to a Collection
While displaying his Flying Eagle and Indian Head Cent collection, Dale will impart interesting facts and history unknown to most people. He will also talk about his journey to assembling this collection, and the numismatist who he met and became a good friend with along the way.
Unless stated otherwise, our regular monthly CCC Meeting is in downtown Chicago on the second Wednesday of the month; the starting time is 6:45PM.
|June||12||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - Dale Carlson on Flying Eagle and Indian Head Cents — The Journey to a Collection|
|July||10||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - Jeffrey Rosinia on to be announced|
|August||13-17||ANA in Rosemont, at Donald E. Stephens Convention Center. Admission is free for ANA members — for details, see http://www.worldsfairofmoney.com.|
|August||13||CCC 100th Anniversary Banquet - Featured Speaker - Clifford Mishler|
|August||17||CCC Meeting - 1pm at the ANA Convention,
which is held at the Donald E. Stephens Convention Center, 5555 North River Road, Rosemont, IL.
No admission charge for our meeting.
Featured Speaker - to be announced
|September||11||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - to be announced|
|September||12-14||ILNA 60th Annual Coin & Currency Show at The Mega Center Pheasant Run Resort, 4051 East Main Street, St. Charles, IL. Details, including hours and events, are available at http://www.ilnaclub.org|
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